Tag Archives: 5G

Data-gathering cars to hit London streets ahead of autonomous trials

 

Five A1

UK company FiveAI has been given the go-ahead to deploy data-gathering cars on London’s streets to pave the way for a potential driverless car service.

FiveAI plans to spend the next 10 months deploying five cars (with drivers on board) in Bromley and Croydon to collect data on roads, including layout, topology and traffic flow, as well as road user behaviour. The data collected will be processed in line with General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) and used to feed into the development of FiveAI’s planned services.

FiveAI notes that all its data collection vehicles will be clearly branded and feature an “obvious array” of sensors to ensure transparency.

Towards trials

The shared service the company is working on will target commuters who drive at least part of their journey. FiveAI hopes to run a supervised trial of autonomous vehicles in London in 2019.

FiveAI co-founder Ben Peters says that autonomous vehicles will be much safer than human-driven cars and the data-gathering exercise is a crucial stage towards getting them onto the roads.

He commented: “By supporting London’s transport objectives with a shared driverless car service, FiveAI can play a crucial role in reducing congestion, emissions, incidents and the cost and time of journeys to benefit all Londoners.”

5G and autonomous vehicles

Some say that autonomous cars will only be a reality when we have 5G. Elsewhere, alongside data-gathering initiatives such as FiveAI’s, trials are ongoing to ensure that 5G connectivity will be in place to support driverless cars in the future.

For example, at Millbrook Proving Ground in Bedford, as part of the AutoAir project, led by Airspan Networks, advanced 5G test networks are being deployed to validate connected and autonomous vehicle (CAV) technologies. The researchers are focused on areas such as complicated cell-tower hand-offs and issues related to bandwidth. They are also looking at how the work they are doing on 5G connectivity could be transferred to road and rail systems.

Meanwhile, government mapping agency, Ordnance Survey (OS), is leading an initiative to help better understand the infrastructure needed to support a nationwide network of CAVs. The E-CAVE project will run for four years and will focus on the geospatial aspects of how CAVs exchange safety-related messages between themselves and the supporting environment.

OS is also working with the 5G Innovation Centre and the Met Office on a digital twinning tool to help determine the best places to put radio antennae to underpin a 5G network.

Source: Sarah Wray www.5g.co.uk

T-Mobile and Nokia ink $3.5 billion, multi-year 5G network agreement

  • Nokia’s largest 5G agreement globally will provide end-to-end 5G solutions for T-Mobile’s nationwide 5G network

30 July 2018

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Bellevue, Washington and Espoo, Finland – T-Mobile (NASDAQ: TMUS) and Nokia today announced a landmark $3.5 billion agreement to accelerate the deployment of a nationwide 5G network. Nokia will provide T-Mobile with its complete end-to-end 5G technology, software and services portfolio, assisting the Un-carrier in its efforts to bring its 5G network to market for customers in the critical first years of the 5G cycle.

“We are all in on 5G,” said Neville Ray, Chief Technology Officer at T-Mobile. “Every dollar we spend is a 5G dollar, and our agreement with Nokia underscores the kind of investment we’re making to bring customers a mobile, nationwide 5G network. And together with Sprint, we’ll be able to do So. Much. More.”

As part of the agreement, Nokia will help build T-Mobile’s nationwide 5G network with 600 MHz and 28 GHz millimeter wave 5G capabilities compliant with 3GPP 5G New Radio (NR) standards.

“Nokia and T-Mobile will advance the large-scale deployment of 5G services throughout the United States,” said Ashish Chowdhary, Chief Customer Operations Officer, Nokia. “This is a testament to our companies’ strong and productive working relationship, one which has produced several important technological milestones in recent months, and which now allows us to make 5G a commercial reality.”

5G promises to enable faster speeds, massive connectivity, decade-long battery life for sensors and super-responsive and reliable networks for customers. This will unleash on-demand virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) experiences, driverless vehicles, medical monitoring, advanced industrial automation services, and so much more – all requiring ubiquitous low latency connectivity.

T-Mobile will leverage multiple products across Nokia’s end-to-end 5G technology, software and services portfolio, including commercial AirScale radio platforms and cloud-native core, AirFrame hardware, CloudBand software, SON and 5G Acceleration Services.

Using 5G, Nokia and T-Mobile will develop, test and launch the next generation of connectivity services that will cover a wide range of industries, including enterprise, smart cities, utilities, transportation, health, manufacturing, retail, agriculture and government agencies.

Source: Nokia





Deutsche Telekom and DEKRA test 5G for connected mobility

  • The Lausitzring is Europe’s largest independent testbed for connected driving
  • Deutsche Telekom is developing 5G technology for communication between vehicles
  • Ideal environment for car manufacturers to test intelligent mobility across various driving scenarios
Deutsche Telekom and DEKRA test 5G for connected mobility.

Deutsche Telekom and DEKRA test 5G for connected mobility.

In just a few years, cars, traffic signals and street lighting will exchange information via 5G. And these are just three examples for traffic in the future. The systems involved will have to be secure. For this reason, DEKRA and Deutsche Telekom are expanding the facilities at the Lausitzring test- and race-track to include a 5G testbed for smart mobility.

There is a wide variety of scenarios – connected cars and autonomous vehicles will communicate with each other in real time, and also with buildings, the road infrastructure and other road users such as cyclists and pedestrians. Navigation information will be precise to the centimeter. In addition to innovative assistance systems, drivers can also use infotainment and other services in the car. This is all based on new connectivity solutions for vehicles. Experts from many different areas work together at the Lausitzring.

It is a place to test intelligent mobility in real situations

This creates the perfect environment for automotive manufacturers and suppliers and communications equipment providers alike. It is a place for them to test intelligent mobility in real situations. The results help in developing technologies and services. Telekom Deutschland will provide the latest 4G and 5G infrastructure for the testbed. Other new technologies also come into play, such as Edge Computing (in which cloud-based computing power ensures real-time communication), Precise Positioning (Driver assistance systems require reliable accuracy in the centimeter range) and C-V2X, the telecommunications standard for communication between vehicles, network infrastructure and road infrastructure.

Wolfgang Linsenmaier, Chairman of the Management Board of DEKRA Automobil GmbH: “The DEKRA Technology Center is Europe’s largest vendor-independent test center for the mobility of the future. The spotlight is on automated and connected driving. We are delighted to have Deutsche Telekom on board as a strategic partner. We are confident this will be beneficial to both sides – but above all for road safety as a whole.”

It is Europe’s largest independent test area

Hagen Rickmann, Director for Business Customers at Telekom Deutschland GmbH: “Mobility is playing an ever greater role in our society. By equipping the Lausitzring with our 5G infrastructure, we and our partner DEKRA are offering industry the perfect testing environment for developing new, future-oriented services. This applies to the requirements on the part of the automotive industry in moving toward autonomous driving, and also to intelligent traffic control as part of smart city projects. Together, we are paving the way toward safe and efficient mobility in the future.”

The DEKRA Technology Center at the Lausitzring already provides the whole range of approval tests for manufacturers. Covering an area of around 545 hectares, it is Europe’s largest independent test area for connected and automated driving. This is an area equivalent to more than 700 football pitches. The roads recreate downtown, country road and highway conditions. There are also special asphalt zones for testing autonomous parking systems.

The industry will be able to use this new facility in the future to test connected functions as well as the enabling systems. As a result, of the entire communication system can be tested, all the way to the car manufacturers’ servers.

About Deutsche Telekom: Company profile

About DEKRA:
DEKRA has been active in the field of safety for more than 90 years. Founded in 1925 in Berlin as Deutscher Kraftfahrzeug-Überwachungs-Verein e.V., it is today one of the world’s leading expert organizations. DEKRA SE is a subsidiary of DEKRA e.V. and manages the Group’s operating business. In 2017, DEKRA generated sales totalling more than 3.1 billion Euros. The company currently employs more than 44,000 people in more than 50 countries on all five continents. With qualified and independent expert services, they work for safety on the road, at work and at home. These services range from vehicle inspection and expert appraisals to claims services, industrial and building inspections, safety consultancy, testing and certification of products and systems, as well as training courses and temporary work. The vision for the company’s 100th birthday in 2025 is that DEKRA will be the global partner for a safe world.

What Le Tour can teach us about 5G

In just a few days, the FIFA World Cup Final will be over and soccer (football, if you must) fans all around the world will go back to being productive members of society. And if you’ve got used to must-see sports on TV nearly every day, what can fill the hole in your schedule? I’d suggest the Tour de France.

Okay, the overlap in World Cup and Le Tour fan bases may not be significant. But, with more than 10 million people showing up roadside to watch the world’s biggest bike race, the 3.5 million that turned up in Brazil for the World Cup four years ago seems nearly pitiful. And where the epitome of technology innovation on the soccer field might be goal-line cameras or new technical fabrics in team uniforms (let’s forget about video assistant refereeing), I’d argue cycling – with $15,000 superbikes, hidden motors and carbon fibre everywhere – should carry a special interest for the tech fans among us.

Oh, and if you’re looking for one more reason to watch, consider all of the things it can tell you about 5G. Things like:

Tech (wireless of bike) is sexy… I’d wager more people follow July’s big bike race for the technology it highlights – lightweight disc brakes, aerodynamically dimpled wheels, increasingly inventive ways to hide doping – than could actually name the race’s top contenders. It mirrors a 5G fascination around the wonders of massive MIMO, network slicing or time-sensitive networking. 5G technology innovations may be nothing more than a means to an end (the services they enable), but they drive engagement and that’s a good thing in and of itself.

…but can’t ensure success. The best bike in the world can’t win a race on its own. Neither can the best-trained rider. Course reconnaissance, team strategy, luck and the support of cheering crowds all play a role. Luck in particular. No operator will admit to luck playing a role in their success. They all need to recognise, however, that 5G success won’t be built upon 3GPP Release 15 and Release 16 features and capabilities. Lots of hard work will be critical, with business decisions and competitive differentiation around partnerships, service innovations and marketing being more important than the standardised 5G technologies available to everyone.

5G isn’t an IoT certainty. When Dimension Data became the Tour’s official technology partner in 2015, we got a big dose of analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) as a part of the fan experience. We got GPS sensors on bikes. We got real time insights. We got deeper analysis of rider performance. We got this all without 5G (even including NB-IoT in that definition). We can imagine a future Tour with 5G-connected bikes and riders. In the meantime, 5G will need to earn its right to play in IoT based on its unique capabilities and a solid understanding of use case requirements: it’s not a given.

Dark horses and favourites. A few days into this year’s race and we already have some surprising results. Fernando Gaviria has won two stages, holding off super-sprinter Peter Sagan. Team BMC, which is currently searching for a sponsor, won the team time trial and has three riders in the top 15. An American is tied for first place. While you can usually count on a handful of contenders to be on the podium at the end of any given stage (much less the end of the race), it’s the unexpected wins that keep things fun. And, with 5G representing a new technology impacting the network core, RAN and device landscape, there’s no shortage of new players vying for unexpected wins against the incumbent wireless suppliers. Watching those dark horses fight for their piece of the 5G pie will be nothing if not exciting.

It’s not about nations. The Tour de France is a race of professional teams, not national teams. That’s easy to forget when you’ve got teams sponsored by the Emirates and Bahrain, not to mention the capital of Kazakhstan (Astana Pro Team). Regardless, it’s not a country-versus-country competition in the same way the World Cup is. Neither is 5G. The first country to 5G won’t automatically win some sort of prize. Instead, the real winners will be the businesses which figure out how to tap global 5G scale to build success across national borders.

 

diabetes cycle rideOf course, if there’s one thing that’s nice about events like the World Cup or Olympics where countries compete against one another, it’s that we all know who the competitors are. So, if you have a hard time getting to grips with Tour de France teams like Sunweb, Bora-Hansgrohe, Direct Energie or Katusha-Alpecin, I have good news: there’s a lesson here too.

For a professional cycling team, casting a wide sponsorship net is a necessity: it takes a lot of money to keep everyone fed, transported and trained. The same holds for 5G. If 5G does nothing more than touch the same set of industries and customers as 4G, it should be considered a failure. Executing on the promise of 5G as a foundational, transformational communications technology will mean touching a broad set of industries and interests. It will mean seamlessly integrating into various use cases and everyday life. That’s a lot to ask, sure. But the stakes are high, and isn’t that why people watch races (to a metaphorical or physical finish line) so closely?

Source: Peter Jarich, head of GSMA Intelligence

Elisa first in world to launch commercial 5G

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Elisa has become the first operator in the world to begin commercial use of a 5G network and starts selling 5G subscriptions. The 5G network was used for the first time to make a video call to Kadri Simson, Minister of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure in Estonia. The video call is yet another historical achievement by Elisa: the first GSM telephone call in the world was also made using Elisa’s network.

Elisa has become the first operator in the world to begin commercial use of a 5G network and starts selling 5G subscriptions. The first person to use the 5G network was Anne Berner, Minister of Transport and Communications, who made a video call to Kadri Simson, Minister of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure in Estonia. The video call is yet another historical achievement by Elisa: the first GSM telephone call in the world was also made using Elisa’s network.

The world’s first commercial 5G networks were launched today in Tampere and Tallinn.

–  We aim to make Finland the leading nation as a developer of 5G mobile services. The Ministry of Communications is ready to allocate the first 5G licences to the 3,400–3,800 megahertz frequency band in autumn, which will make Finland among the first countries in the world to start building 5G networks, says Anne Berner, Minister of Transport and Communications.

5G will offer several new features to users of mobile services. For instance, 5G enables considerably faster data speeds and lower latency, as well as allowing a significantly larger number of devices to connect to the network.  This higher speed benefited the video call made over the world’s first commercial 5G network. Elisa, together with Huawei, used the first commercial 5G terminal devices in the world to make the call.

– 5G makes it possible to use completely new applications in areas like transportation, health care, energy efficiency improvement and entertainment. Finland is already among the global leaders in the use of mobile data. Elisa actively enables Finland to continue leadership in mobile data usage by opening commercial 5G network first in the world. With the help of 5G services, consumers as well as corporate and institutional customers will get lots of new value when modern applications can be used more efficiently and it becomes possible to develop new applications. For example, it will be possible in the future for all viewers to watch the same football match as a high-quality live broadcast without delay using any terminal device, says Elisa’s CEO Veli-Matti Mattila.

In addition, 5G enables connecting a vast number of different devices to the network simultaneously. This will offer companies whole new business opportunities in the near future, for instance, when developing solutions related to the Internet of Things, such as the NB-IoT (Narrowband Internet of Things). Together with dozens of different customers from, among others, the retail sector, the forest and mechanical engineering industries, and public administration, Elisa is testing and developing applications and services that use new 5G features and produce new added value for customers.

The new network is the kickstart for 5G and the highlight of several years of development work by Elisa. The company has tested technology and pre-commercial applications that will be used in the 5G networks of the future. Elisa has also been updating its networks to be 5G-ready across Finland, and this work continues.

Source: Elisa

Vodafone to trial 5G in seven cities later this year

5g

Vodafone has made a big 5G announcement, as it’s just revealed that seven cities will become trial areas for Vodafone 5G later this year.

The cities in question are Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Liverpool, London and Manchester, and the trials are set to begin between October and December 2018.

Vodafone claims this is the most comprehensive 5G trial announced to date, and adds that the trial will be used to test new 5G applications, including virtual and augmented reality in factories, hospitals and offices.

In advance of these 5G trials, Vodafone’s engineers are already busy laying the groundwork for a 5G network at more than 40 sites in these cities.

Above shows James Hope, Head of Networks for the North, Vodafone UK, pictured with one of the new 5G base stations in Manchester.

A vision for the future

The trials are part of an ambitious plan that Vodafone has dubbed Gigabit UK and which envisions a UK where everyone can get speeds of one gigabit per second or more, wherever they are. It’s a plan that will involve both the launch of a widespread 5G network and upgraded fixed broadband connections.

And speaking of Vodafone’s 5G network, the company has additionally said that these upcoming trials should help ensure it’s ready for a full commercial launch in early 2020.

That will likely put Vodafone ever so slightly behind EE and BT, both of which might launch in late 2019, but Vodafone is still in a strong position, having purchased the most 5G spectrum at the recent Ofcom auction, a purchase which Vodafone claims has allowed it to begin these widespread 5G trials, having already carried out an earlier trial with the spectrum.

It’s worth noting also that these trial cities might well be among the first locations to get full 5G once Vodafone does launch it commercially. The company hasn’t said as much but it would make sense given that it’s being trialled in these locations, and given that they’re major cities.

Vodafone UK Chief Executive Nick Jeffery said: “We want to make 5G and new fibre broadband services available to consumers and business throughout the UK, delivering a Gigabit society for all. We will also be bringing ultra-fast 4G to several hundred sites in hard to reach rural areas this year, building on our position as the network that offers the best voice coverage in the UK.”

Source: James Rogerson. 5G

3GPP makes 5G a reality by signing off standalone standard

3GPP

A 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership project) plenary meeting has approved the specifications for standalone (SA) 5G.

3GPP said the finalisation of these specifications marked another essential step in standardising the technology and that the industry is now on the “final sprint” towards commercial roll-out of 5G.

The latest SA specification, published in 3GPP’s Release 15, paves the way for 5G networks which operate independently from 4G.  It will allow 5G NR (new radio) to be independently deployed, enable end-to-end 5G architecture, and open up new business models for the telecommunications industry, said a statement from 3GPP, which was backed by its members.

This follows the release of 5G NR specifications for non-standalone (NSA) 5G in December last year.

On track

The new standard was delivered on time, according to 3GPP’s schedule. 3GPP is a collaboration between seven telecommunications standards development organisations which represent companies from across the communications industry.

Over 600 delegates from telecommunications companies, chipset vendors, internet firms and industrial partners, attended the plenary meeting to witness what 3GPP calls a “historic moment for 5G”.

Following the publication of Release 15, operators and vendors can now move ahead more quickly with advanced testing using equipment they know is standards-compliant. AT&T said, for example that it plans to roll out commercial 5G in 12 cities later this year.

Georg Mayer, Chairman of 3GPP Technical Specification Group Core Network and Terminals (TSG CT), said that Release 15 has made 5G a reality, moving it beyond purely vision and hype.  However, he noted that this is also just the first step in the 5G story and the hard work now begins on continuing to refine and develop standards to meet the needs of various customers and industries.

Ultra-collaboration

Many 3GPP member companies provided statements supporting the latest standard and the value that 5G is set to deliver.

Luke Ibbetson, Head of Vodafone Group R&D said: “This is another important step towards being able to realise the full potential of 5G as we look ahead to the next decade of mobile innovation. This adds further capability to the 5G family of technologies including 5G NR, LTE evolution and LPWA.”

“BT recognises another significant milestone on the path of 5G.” said Neil J. McRae, Chief Architect at BT. “This step provides the crucial foundation to enable the power of 5G to deliver on low latency, scale and high availability – the foundation that our customers need to usher in the fourth industrial revolution and the era of ultra-collaboration.”

Source: Sarah Wray. 5G

EE SET TO SWITCH ON UK’S FIRST 5G TRIAL NETWORK IN EAST LONDON

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EE SET TO SWITCH ON UK’S FIRST 5G TRIAL NETWORK IN EAST LONDON

  • EE switching on UK’s first live 5G trial network in East London in October
  • 10 sites to be upgraded with latest 5G technology to enable next generation of mobile network
  • Consumers and businesses to experience UK’s first 5G network with beta 5G broadband devices

EE, the UK’s largest mobile operator, will switch on the UK’s first live 5G trial network in East London in October, connecting real EE customers and businesses to 5G for the first time.

The trial will see 5G switched on at 10 sites around East London in areas including City Road, Old Street, Hoxton Square, St Paul’s and Chiswell Street. Five small businesses and five homes will have the chance to get connected to the unique 5G launch to trial the new technology, using prototype 5G broadband devices. In the coming weeks, EE will be using social media channels to find the UK’s first ever 5G trialists.

The live trial will demonstrate the ability of 5G to provide the highest speed mobile data connections, even in the most densely populated urban environments. 5G will create more reliable and responsive mobile internet connections, enabling widespread adoption of technologies like virtual reality and augmented reality in apps and services. EE aims to deliver live speeds in excess of one gigabit per second with this first trial.

EE aims to be the first UK operator to launch 5G, and will build the new mobile technology on top of its award winning 4G network, boasting the fastest speeds and the widest coverage.

Minister for Digital, Margot James, said: “We want the UK to be a global leader in 5G as part of our ambition to create a world-leading digital economy that works for everyone. Together with the Government’s own test beds and trials programme, industry initiatives like this will help deliver the benefits of this new revolutionary technology to businesses and consumers across the UK.”

Marc Allera, CEO of BT’s Consumer business, said: “This live trial is a big step forward in making the benefits of 5G a reality for our customers, and in making sure that the UK is at the front of the pack for 5G technology. We’re focusing our resource and experience across EE and BT to ensure that we continue to lead the UK market with a mobile network that keeps giving our customers the best speeds and the best coverage. 5G is a fundamental part of our work to build a converged, smart network that keeps our customers connected to the things that matter most.”

Source: EE

Nokia and SFR conduct 5G Radio call using 3.5 GHz spectrum in France

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Nokia and SFR first in France to conduct a 5G New Radio call using 3.5 GHz spectrum

  • Over-the-air test of 3GPP-compliant 5G New Radio using 3.5 GHz frequency band continues focus on joint testing and development of initial 5G applications
  • Application of Nokia’s AirScale radio platform, Cloud RAN running on Nokia AirFrame data center solution, and 3GPP-compliant end-user test devices
  • 5G will provide SFR with massive bandwidth, ultra-high speed and very low latency to transform the mobile experience for its customers



 Nokia and SFR have successfully completed a 5G call, using the 3GPP-compliant 5G New Radio (NR) system over-the-air on the 3.5GHz frequency band. The test took place on  May 3rd, 2018, at the Nokia 5G Test Network and Competence Center in Paris-Saclay, France.

The 5G call used Nokia 5G NR technology, incorporating the Nokia 5G-ready AirScale radio platform and Cloud RAN technology together with 3GPP-compliant end user test devices. A cloud infrastructure based on the Nokia AirFrame Datacenter solution was built to support Cloud RAN.

The 5G New Radio NR standard, agreed by the 3GPP in December 2017, is designed to support a wide variety of 5G applications and enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) services. Nokia 5G NR systems use smart antennas to deliver multi-gigabit throughput speeds and millisecond low-latency. This will enable operators such as SFR to increase network capacity in spectrum below 6GHz frequency bands to deliver wide-area coverage.

Nokia is a key supplier to SFR, specifically on the radio access network, and this latest milestone is fully in line with SFR’s ambition to be at the forefront of innovation for the benefit of its customers.

François Vincent, head of Mobile Network at SFR, said: “SFR is developing a roadmap for the evolution of its networks that takes into account the benefits and complexity of implementing 5G. The joint projects and trials will enable us to meet future data demand in the most effective way, while exploring new ways to deliver our media content that will increase the subscriber experience.”

Marc Rouanne, president of Mobile Networks at Nokiasaid: “Nokia is pleased to support SFR in accelerating its implementation of 5G and developing new business models that will enrich the user experience. By testing 5G technologies now, we can place SFR ahead of the needs of its data-hungry customers while preparing the operator for the launch of next-generation services.”

Source: Nokia

Aerostats could bring 5G to rural locations at low cost

5G Supertower

5G networks are going to require a lot of new infrastructure and it’s infrastructure that may not always be financially viable in rural locations, but Altaeros – a telecom infrastructure company – may have a solution in the form of airships.

It’s developed aerostats known as SuperTowers, which can lift antennas and receivers 250 metres high, providing coverage to a 10,000 square kilometre (3,860 square mile) area. That, according to IEEE, would usually require 20-30 masts, but it requires just one SuperTower, thereby reducing deployment costs by around 70%.

Right now, these SuperTowers (which you can see in action in the video below) are still in testing, but recently Altaeros successfully tested a 15-metre prototype, and it’s now preparing a commercial version that will be roughly twice the size and deployed in the US later this year.

Initially they will be providing 4G coverage, but the company claims that they’re ready for 5G and eventually it plans to spread them across the world, so there’s a chance that they could be a viable option in the UK by the time 5G networks start being constructed in around 2020.

Autonomous and mobile

Not only are SuperTowers relatively cheap, but unlike most aerostats they’re autonomous, further keeping costs and deployment time down. And because they’re mobile and can be set up in a couple of days they could also be used to provide temporary coverage as needed, at the likes of concerts and sporting events.

Even if Altaeros isn’t ready to bring them to the UK any time soon, another company could use a similar idea, as EE for example has already used similar air mast technology to bring 4G to 2017’s Red Bull Foxhunt.

So one way or another we might soon see airships taking the place of masts in some locations, and it might mean 5G comes to rural places a lot faster than 4G did.